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Procedure-Associated Shock: References

Broussard D, Ural K.  Cardiovascular problems in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). UpToDate. 2018 June 5, last update.

Gaieski DF, Mikkelsen ME. Evaluation of and initial approach to the adult patient with undifferentiated hypotension and shock. UpToDate. 2018 October, last updated.

HIROC. Risk reference sheet: Failure to appreciate status changes/deteriorating patients. Acute care. Toronto, ON: HIROC; 2016.

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to guide: Prevent harm from high-alert medications. Cambridge, MA: IHI; 2012.

Laporta D. Types of shock encountered in the peri-procedure period. Personal communication; 2018 Marc.

Nichol A, Ahmed B. Shock: causes, initial assessment, and investigations. Anesth Intens Care Med. 2014: 15 (2): 64-67.

Procter LD. Shock. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Published October 2020. Accessed March 2021.

Singer M, et. al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016; 315 (8): 801-810.

Vincent JL, De Backer D. Circulatory shock. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369 (18): 1726-1734. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1208943. Available at:


Procedure-Associated Shock

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Procedure-Associated Shock

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